Analyticity, Necessity, and the Epistemology of Semantics by Jerrold J Katz

By Jerrold J Katz

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In keeping with philosophical positions generally, skepticism comes in many different versions. Skeptics have doubted the reality of the external world, (other) minds, abstract objects, physical objects, history, the future, causation, God (of course), evil, goodness, and so on. In addition, skeptics have disavowed various cognitively important states: certainty, knowledge, justified belief, and reliable belief, among others. Skepticism also comes in different strengths of doubt. Modal skeptics disavow that a cognitive state, such as knowledge, is even possible.

As I experience via conscience, if vaguely at first, God’s evident authoritative call to volitional fellowship and I attend to it in a way that allows it to become a salient challenge to my life relative to God’s perfect love, I then face a volitional crisis, and must respond in one way or another. Of course I might refuse to attend at all to the experienced call (in any way that allows 24 INTRODUCTION it to become salient in my experience), and that would be a response with potentially obstructing consequences.

Truth-indicators, as just suggested, come in various forms. Some indicate a truth deductively; others indicate a truth nondeductively. In addition, some truth-indicators are propositional in virtue of expressing 36 DOUBTING SKEPTICS a proposition; others are nonpropositional, such as those from perceptual experiences that don’t depend on our categorization or judgment but just on suitably determinate attention-attraction. Some truth-indicators can be controlled and reproduced by us; others can’t.

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