AS Chemistry (Instant Revision) by Anthony Ellison

By Anthony Ellison

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With steam, however, magnesium burns brightly to produce magnesium oxide and hydrogen. Mg(s) + H2O(g) MgO(s) + H2(g) Because the reactivity of the metals increases down the group, the remaining metals react vigorously with cold water. 48 T HE P ERIODIC TABLE (5) Example Ba(s) + 2H2O(l) Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) The metal hydroxide is often produced as a suspension in water. Solubility of group 2 hydroxides and sulphates Solubility data for group 2 hydroxides in water at 298 K are given below. 4 × 10–3 Ba(OH)2 15 × 10–3 As the group is descended, the solubility of the group 2 hydroxides increases.

3 kJ mol–1. If a weak acid or weak alkali is used (or both are weak), the standard enthalpy of neutralisation is generally less exothermic. This is because heat energy is required to ionise a weak acid or base. Hess’s law Hess’ law states that ‘the enthalpy change accompanying a chemical reaction is independent of the pathway between the initial and final states’. If a reaction is broken down into several intermediate steps, and each step is assigned an individual enthalpy change, then the sum of the individual changes must equal the overall enthalpy change, provided the initial and final states are the same.

3 kJ mol–1. If a weak acid or weak alkali is used (or both are weak), the standard enthalpy of neutralisation is generally less exothermic. This is because heat energy is required to ionise a weak acid or base. Hess’s law Hess’ law states that ‘the enthalpy change accompanying a chemical reaction is independent of the pathway between the initial and final states’. If a reaction is broken down into several intermediate steps, and each step is assigned an individual enthalpy change, then the sum of the individual changes must equal the overall enthalpy change, provided the initial and final states are the same.

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