Biological Psychiatry, Third Edition by Michael R. Trimble, Mark S. George

By Michael R. Trimble, Mark S. George

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Recently, the discovery of the polymerase chain reaction has revolutionized the analysis of RFLPs. In this technique, sufficient high-quality DNA is produced by biological amplification using DNA polymerase, increasing the speed and power of analysis. The RFLPs are used as genetic markers for inherited diseases if they can be shown to be linked to a gene that is thought to be abnormal Principles of Brain Function and Structure: 1 Genetics, Physiology and Chemistry 7 and responsible for the condition.

Where the neurone has receptors to its own transmitter on these terminals they are called autoreceptors. 11 Schematic representation of a generic excitatory synapse in the brain. This shows glutamate released by fusion of transmitter vesicles at the nerve terminal and diffusing across the synaptic cleft to activate AMPA and NMDA receptors. Glutamate also binds to metabotropic G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, initiating secondary messenger intracellular signalling through the G-protein complex (Webster, 2002) 14 Biological Psychiatry Calcium has been shown to be essential for transmitter release.

There are at least three classes of opiate receptor (Reisine and Bell, 1993): delta, kappa and mu. The delta and kappa bind enkephalins and endorphin, and the kappa receptors bind dynorphins. Mu receptors are selectively sensitive to morphine. All three types couple to adenylate cyclase, inhibiting cAMP. Receptors for substance P, enkephalins, prolactin, steroids, adenosine (A1 –A3 ) and even some drugs such as imipramine, have also been described. In the latter instance, it is the case that the imipramine, or another drug such as paroxetine, binds to the 5-HT transporter site.

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