Centromere: Structure and Evolution by Tanya Panchenko, Ben E. Black (auth.), Durdica Ugarkovic

By Tanya Panchenko, Ben E. Black (auth.), Durdica Ugarkovic (eds.)

The centromere is a chromosomal locus that regulates the right kind pairing and segregation of the chromosomes in the course of phone department. regardless of their conserved, crucial functionality, centromeres are characterised by way of the speedy evolution of either centromeric DNA and proteins.

This publication offers present perspectives on centromere constitution and identification. It bargains with the epigenetic suggestion of centromere institution and upkeep in addition to with the position of DNA and centromeric transcripts in centromere formation and serve as. specified emphasis is put on centromere evolution: assorted evolutionary types are mentioned intimately and the most recent study at the evolution of latest centromeres and neocentromeres is presented.

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Additional info for Centromere: Structure and Evolution

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Higher-order arrays of a-satellite are the typical sequence organization of centromere regions of humans and can stretch for megabases of DNA that is largely uninterrupted by any kind of insertion or mutation. For example, the repeat unit length of the central core of the human X chromosome is ~2 kb, comprised of twelve 171-bp monomers of an evolutionarily young DXZ1 a-satellite (Schueler et al. 2001). Surrounding this “central region” are a-satellites found in monomeric units. These a-satellites are considered pericentric; while they may serve important roles in chromosome segregation, they do not recruit centromeric and kinetochore proteins.

Cell 129:1153–1164 Monen J, Maddox PS, Hyndman F, Oegema K, Desai A (2005) Differential role of CENP-A in the segregation of holocentric C. elegans chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis. Nat Cell Biol 7:1248–1255 Moreno-Moreno O, Torras-Llort M, Azorin F (2006) Proteolysis restricts localization of CID, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant of Drosophila, to centromeres. Nucleic Acids Res 34:6247–6255 Motamedi MR, Verdel A, Colmenares SU, Gerber SA, Gygi SP, Moazed D (2004) Two RNAi complexes, RITS and RDRC, physically interact and localize to noncoding centromeric RNAs.

For instance, there is very little overlap between the centromeric satellite sequences of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans, in spite of the fact that many satellites are shared between the two species (Lohe and Brutlag 1987). Satellite repeats in rice centromeres also have been found to have dramatically changed over short evolutionary periods (Lee et al. 2005; see Chap. 6 in this volume). Similarly, the human X centromeric satellite appears to be only as old as the great apes (Schueler et al.

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