Chemical and Metallurgical Thermodynamics. An Easy Reckoner by Prasad K.K., Ray H.S., Abraham K.P.

By Prasad K.K., Ray H.S., Abraham K.P.

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2Ca + O2 = 2CaO 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO Si + O2 = SiO2 4/3 Al + O2 = 2/3 Al2O3 etc. This is done to ensure ease of algebraic addition and subtraction of the chemical equations. Stated differently, we can conclude that the lines lying lower in the diagram denote a more stable oxide. , FeO). The reaction between Al and FeO is the basis of the Thermit Welding Process. By a similar logic it can be seen that carbon is poor reducer of metal oxides at lower temperatures but can reduce most of the metal oxides at higher temperatures, since CO line has a negative slope and cuts across most of the other metal oxide lines.

Solutions and Activities A common example of a solution is a homogeneous gas mixture, and presence of such homogeneous gas mixture often alters the feasibility situation. From Fig. 4 (Ellingham Diagram), we can see that FeO formation line lies slightly below the CO2 formation line implying that an equal mixture of CO and CO2 would not be able to reduce FeO. But by maintaining a large excess of CO over CO2, the sponge iron making process has become a massive industrial success. 2. Activities in Liquid Solution If we mix water and alcohol (C2H5OH, ethanol), they dissolve to form a single liquid phase.

26 Chemical and Metallurgical Thermodynamics If there are no phase changes in this temperature range then the heat effect measured by the calorimeter is related to the heat capacity thus ∆H T298 = ∫ T 298 ∆C p dT Attempts were made to select an expression of Cp in term of T so that most of the results can be fitted in a single expression, which would enable easy tabulation of data. An expression of the type Cp = a + bT + CT2 has been found satisfactory in most cases. However, Kelley found that an expression of the type Cp = a + bT + cT–2 fits the results even better.

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