Chemistry and Technology of Cyanate Ester Resins by I. Hamerton (auth.), Ian Hamerton (eds.)
By I. Hamerton (auth.), Ian Hamerton (eds.)
After epoxy resins and polyimides, cyanate esters arguably shape the main well-developed workforce of high-temperature, thermosetting polymers. They own a few fascinating functionality features which cause them to of accelerating technological value, the place their a little bit better expenditures are appropriate. The crucial finish makes use of for cyanate esters are as matrix resins for published wiring board laminates and structural composites. For the electronics markets, the low dielectric loss features, dimen sional balance at molten solder temperatures and ideal adhesion to conductor metals at temperatures as much as 250°C, are fascinating. of their use in aerospace composites, unmodified cyanate esters supply two times the frac ture durability of multifunctional epoxies, whereas attaining a provider tem perature intermediate among epoxy and bis-maleimide functions. functions in radome development and plane with diminished radar signatures make the most of the strangely low capacitance houses of cyanate esters and linked low dissipation components. whereas a couple of advertisement cyanate ester monomers and prepoly mers are actually to be had, so far there was no finished assessment of the chemistry and up to date technological purposes of this flexible relatives of resins. The goals of the current textual content are to give those in a com pact, readable shape. The paintings is essentially geared toward fabrics scientists and polymer technologists keen on study and improvement within the chemical, electronics, aerospace and adhesives industries. it really is was hoping that complex undergraduates and postgraduates in polymer chemistry and expertise, and fabrics science/technology will locate it an invaluable introduc tion and resource of reference during their studies.
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Additional info for Chemistry and Technology of Cyanate Ester Resins
Inductive effects which make precursor alcohols strongly acidic also stabilize the alkyl cyanate against isomerization . This is particularly true of fluorine in the j3-position of alkyl cyanates. Fluoroalkyl dicyanate monomers have been successfully synthesized and polymerized . 16 . This activated electrophilic effect is apparently also operative when the trifluoromethyl groups are positioned a to a double or triple bond . Organosilicon cyanates represent a potentially very interesting class of cyanate monomers.
The curing reaction of cyanate monomers is autocatalytic and very exothermic (100 to 200 cal/g). Under runaway conditions, it may rapidly generate temperatures in excess of 400°C along with smoke and char formation . Overheating, non-uniform heating and overcatalyzing are conditions which cause run-away reactions. Heating should be uniform, temperature monitored and quench capability available especially when curing large volumes. A cyanate ester safety and handling bulletin is available from Ciba-Geigy identifying safe and unsafe practices and precautions for working with these monomers .
Purification may be conducted with a silica column, but alumina should be avoided because it is too reactive toward the cyanate. 2 Monomer syntheses Three classes of cyanate monomers (cyanate functionality of two or greater) that have been prepared by the alcohol-cyanogen halide method are aryl cyanates, alkyl cyanates and fluoroalkyl cyanates. The aryl cyanate monomers overwhelmingly predominate, and only they have achieved commercial importance. 3, and only one relatively unique alkyl dicyanate has been prepared.