Ciba Foundation Symposium 181 - Neural Tube Defects

Neural tube defects are the second one commonest explanation for perinatal demise from start defects within the uk. during this very important ebook, top scientists overview the most recent proof at the causative factors--both genetic and environmental--of those significant human congenital malformations. additionally they speak about customers for early detection via prenatal screening and for remedy either ahead of and after beginning. The broad insurance encompasses such subject matters as: formation and patterning of the avian neuraxis, neurulation in mammals and the conventional human embryo, folic acid and extra.

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G. a gene mutation, or whether they represent defects of earlier gastrulation. I always find it helpful to look at neurulation basically as the end result of gastrulation. Many events occur before gastrulation that affect both neural tube development and mesodermal development surrounding the neural tube. g. the high incidence of neural tube defects in infants of diabetic mothers or the schisis associations that Andrew Czeizel (1981) has defined. I think there are probably determinative inductive events before neural tube formation which affect both mesodermal differentiation and neural tube formation.

Median hinge-point (MHP) cells are neuroepithelial cells that become anchored to the underlying notochord (or prechordal plate mesoderm, more rostrally); most (about 70%) of them become wedge shaped. The second population consists of lateral neuroepithelial cells, about 70% of which remain spindle shaped. Later, an additional population of cells appears, at certain rostrocaudal levels of the neuraxis, near the lateral edges of the neural plate. These dorsolateral hingepoint cells are neuroepithelial cells that become anchored to the adjacent surface ectoderm of the forming neural folds; about 55% of them become wedge shaped.

Experimental results provide direct evidence that extensive cell-cell intercalation occurs in epithelial sheets during avian neurulation and that neurulation involves large-scale movements of cells, typical of convergent extension. Hypothesis 4: Bending of the neural plate requires changes in cell behaviour both within and outside the neural plate. e. the rotation of the neural plate around loci termed hinge points (see below). Furrowing and folding collectively result in elevation and convergence of the neural folds toward the dorsal midline of the embryo.

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