Introduction to Instrumentation, Measmnts. by R. Northrop

By R. Northrop

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The primary time/frequency standard, currently in use, is the cesium 133 atomic beam clock. 16. 192631770 GHz, having an effective Q of 2 Â 108. Coordinated universal time (UTC), whose basic unit is the second, is defined as 9,192,631,770 periods of the cesium 133 beam oscillator. This international standard was adopted in October, 1967 and is more accurate than any clock calibrated by astronomical measurements [Oliver and Cage, 1971]. The Hewlett-Packard HP5061B (Opt 004) Cesium Beam Frequency Standard has a long term stability of Æ2 Â 10À12 over the life of the cesium beam tube.

The space between the cylinders is filled with dry air and sealed. The center cylinder is filled with oil for temperature stabilization and control. In the Rosa type resistor, the resistance wire windings are in direct contact with dry oil in a sealed can. Rosa resistors are available in decade sizes, typically 1, 10, 100, 1k and 10k ohms. In 1966, Hewlett-Packard (HP) developed an improved standard resistor design, their 11100 series, which achieved superior temperature stability and precision through the use of new materials for insulation, resistance coil support and the resistance wire.

Formerly, the meter was defined as one ten millionth of the arc distance of a meridian passing from the north pole through Paris, to the equator. It was represented by an artifact consisting of a platinum-iridium bar, with lines scribed on it one meter apart, kept at constant temperature at the BIPM near Paris. In 1960, the meter was redefined in terms of the wavelength of monochromatic light. 73 wavelengths in vacuum of the orange radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels 2p10 and 5d5 of the krypton-86 atom.

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